Studying Abroad: The Necessary Precautions against Pathogens

Students from around the world visit other countries to study in many disciplines such as medicine, communications and journalism etc… This is noble minded of these students and studying abroad can make the world seem a little smaller. While at the age of the average college student, they also feel immortal and many tend to take risks when away from family and other accountability. This is for the most part harmless in the long run but we would like to give caution to those who are studying medicine at universities around the world, and especially those who’s research will take them to a 2nd or 3rd world country where disease is yet to be conquered.Study Abroad


Going to Africa: The Outbreaks, Pathogens and Antibodies

Many who grew up in places like Nigeria or other African countries can have a tolerance built up within their immune system for many of the airborne or waterborne pathogens prevalently found there. This is a natural selection benefit that has given them the edge to live where they are. When someone from the outside, say a westerner, brings a common cold, they might not be as immune to it as that outsider and may display more severe reactions or symptoms to something that would not ordinarily cause concern for the original host. This is a two-way road. When you decide to study somewhere like Africa, be sure that you fully understand the land where you are going. There are many sicknesses like malaria and dysentery which may be easily caught if precautions are ignored. These are among the more common occurrences. The more severe sicknesses like Ebola and HIV/AIDS are not always thought of as something you can catch as a westerner, but be sure that they are.

Studying with the right equipment for Science and Safety

While you are in the land, be sure to not only pack your necessary reagent supplies, but your personal hygiene gear as well. To get accurate measurements on the pathogens you are studying, it is never worth it to sacrifice your life. Research is going to continue whether you are a part of it or not, and better to have you doing your data collecting and testing while in good health – even if it means remaining on the mainland of your home. Being cautious is never a wrong move, so as you pursue your career in biotechnology and science in order to further the cause of mankind, be sure to preserve yourself. The many exciting journeys that lie ahead of you in research and development may prove to be something the world has never seen, and to that end, if the world ceases to see you, they may never have come to fruition. For PMP digital, have a safe and productive college and science career.

Reagents and Vaccinating Ebola

monoclonal antibodies Reagents are the starting point for reactions, such as with the use of sulfur. ELISA Kits provide such materials are used in laboratories around the world in order to test for many things, but for purposes of this website, we are discussing their scientific uses in testing for the presence of pathogens.

Understanding the Challenges of Ending Viruses Globally

Reagents can come in many forms and are a added to a control system to bring about some sort of chemical reaction to detect the presence of an antibody for example, leading to the discovery of the presence of a virus or pathogen. The reagent is also often referred to as a reactant, which is the substance that gets consumed during the chemical reaction. Consider something as simple as a urine test for pregnancy. What you see when there is a “+” or a “-” is the result of such tests. Although there seems to be some interchangeability involved in the use of the terms reactant and reagent, to get more specific a reactant which is consumed in a chemical reaction, is different in terms of our discussions from something like a solvent. Solvents and catalysts are both involved in a chemical reaction but they are not necissarily consumed by the reaction. If they are not consumed, then they are not reactants. The “non-reactants” as we will discuss in great detail in this website, play a large role in testing for presence or absence of pathogen.

ebola virusReagents mostly refer to organic chemistry because non organic chemistry does not deal with pathogens, antigens or antibodies. Testing for certain compounds is done so by determining what type of reaction will take place given the proper reagent and the proper antibody. When the two exist together in a test plate or substrate. ELISA kits are usually used as the testing grounds for those pathogens or antibodies as described above.

Immunity and Antiserum’s Relation to Antibodies

With the recent onset of the Ebola virus worldwide, it is becoming increasingly more important to test which humans are immune to certain types of viruses and diseases. This is often thought to be unachievable biology but there is much research currently under way looking at ways to find an antiserum which can cross blood barriers of type and ethnicity. The way it works is when the antibody present in the body of a survivor of any particular pathogen is introduced into the body of a non-survivor, the test subject may get some of the symptoms of the disease or virus (such as the temporary bodily discomfort experienced by many the day after a flu shot), this triggers the immune system to put forth a strong response to the invasive and unknown antibody, creating more of them.

Polyclonal Antibodies

The polyclonal antibodies are essentially the antibodies specifically targeting the disease or pathogen in question. As they are taken from the host, there is no longer the presence of the disease, only remnants of the immune system’s response to combat the invasive sickness. The science underway is testing whether the same antibody created by one human is good for any human. In many cases, the blood type is the inhibitor of successfully creating a universal antiserum for the disease.

Monoclonal Antibodies and Antiserum

Biochemistry and molecular biology depend on the identical immune cells which are all considered clones of the parent cell. In contrast to the the polyclonal antibody, the monoclonal or monospecific antibodies have an affinity to bind to the same B cells or T cells – the part of the immune system (consider immune deficiency) which are the building blocks of the human immune system and thus of utmost importance when developing antiserums.

Given any substance, monoclonal antibodies can bind to that substance and detect the level of purity of that substance. This is highly important in medicine creation. Through the next several months we will post new research and resources on the market which are making a difference with the CDC in combating Ebola and other communicable diseases that affect our planet.

Antigens, the Antibody Generator

If provoking the immune system to respond, it is required in that order to generate an antibody for any type of sickness to have a substance called an antigen (Ag). Antigens are antibody generators, which when you look at an antibody, it is is the classic “lock and key” fit between the antibody and the antigen which us used to promote the adaptive immune response. This is the exact type of response that researchers hope for when developing different types of gene therapy for diseases that affect humans. These are often tested in laboratories using animals which have similar DNA to humans, considerably mice and rabbits. Because of the similarities in DNA, testing kits have been developed around the animals. When used for testing, as with any warm-blooded mammalian the antigen is supposed to attack invading viruses and other non-self invaders. This study is aided when scientists are able to properly test with the proper equipment, for which it is extremely important to have a reagent supplier who can produce testing kits for any type of disease or sickness that needs an antibody.

The final work of antigens is the aiding of a better immune system which is considered the discipline if immunology.